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 Education

School — Major — Degree Duration

國立高雄師範大學 — 特殊教育學系(畢) — 博士

PhD, Department of Special Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University

1999/09 — 2004/06

美國紐約州立大學 — 職能治療系(畢) — 碩士

Master, Department of Occupational Therapy, State University of New York at Buffalo

1993/09 — 1995/06

高雄醫學院 — 復健醫學系(畢) — 學士

Bachelor, Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University

1989/09 — 1993/06

 Intramural Experience

Office/Department/Institute Position Duration
      —  
學生事務處 Office of Student Affairs   Vice President for Student Affairs 2021/08/30 — 2022/07/31
職能治療學系 Department of Occupational Therapy   Professor 2013/08/01 —  
職能治療學系 Department of Occupational Therapy   Associate Professor 2009/09/01 — 2013/07/31
職能治療學系 Department of Occupational Therapy   Assistant Professor 2004/08/01 — 2009/08/31
職能治療學系 Department of Occupational Therapy   Lecturer 2002/08/01 — 2004/07/31
復健醫學系 Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation   Lecturer 1996/02/01 — 2002/07/31

 Extramural Experience

 

 Discipline

NO Discipline Expertise
1 生物醫農類 Biology, Medicine and Agriculture 復健科 Rehabilitation Medicine

 Research & Technology Platform Open to the Outside

 

 Interested Area(s)for Interdisciplinary Research

小兒科、復健科、兒童心智科、特殊教育、醫學影像

 

 Area(s) of Expertise & Research

兒童職能治療、智能障礙研究、兒童知覺動作行為、特殊教育小兒職能治療、感覺統合、身心障礙特殊教育

Pediatric Occupational Therapy, Sensory Integration, Special Education

 Publication

NO Publication
1

The neural substrates of visual organization in children and adolescents: An fMRI study.
汪宜霈*, 王志中, 蔡獻裕, 萬羿廷 - - 1 - APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. CHILD - APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY-CHILD 2020 9卷(0期):1-13頁
(IF: 1.493, 領域排名: 64, 領域期刊數: 77, 領域排名: 83.12%)

The neural substrates of visual organization in children and adolescents: An fMRI study.
Yee-Pay Wuang*, Chih-Chung Wang, Hsien-Yu Tsai, Yi-Ting Wan - - 1 - APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. CHILD - APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY-CHILD 2020;9(0):1-13
(IF: 1.493, Journal Ranking: 64, Number of Journals of this Field: 77, Ranking: 83.12%)

2

Sensory Integration and Perceptual-Motor Profiles in School-Aged Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
汪宜霈*, 黃倩伶, 蔡獻裕 - - 1 - NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE AND TREATMENT - NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE AND TREATMENT 2020 16卷(-期):1661-1673頁
(IF: 2.57, 領域排名: 106, 領域期刊數: 156, 領域排名: 67.95%)

Sensory Integration and Perceptual-Motor Profiles in School-Aged Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
Yee-Pay Wuang*, Chien-Ling Huang, Hsien-Yu Tsai - - 1 - NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE AND TREATMENT - NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE AND TREATMENT 2020;16(-):1661-1673
(IF: 2.57, Journal Ranking: 106, Number of Journals of this Field: 156, Ranking: 67.95%)

3

基於遊戲輔助訓練系統於改善發展障礙兒童視知覺功能障礙之研究
汪宜霈, 邱毓賢, 陳彥銘, 陳秋評, 王志中, 黃倩玲, 巫唐孟, 何文獻* - - 2 - Computers & Education - Computers & Education 2018 124卷(0期):27–36頁
(IF: 4.538, 領域排名: 4, 領域期刊數: 238, 領域排名: 1.68%)

Game-Based Auxiliary Training System for Improving Visual Perceptual Dysfunction in Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Proposed Design and Evaluation
Yee-Pay Wuang, Yu-Hsien Chiu, Yenming J. Chen, Chiu-Ping Chen, Chih-Chung Wang, Chien-Ling Huang, Tang-Meng Wu, Wen-Hsien Ho* - - 2 - Computers & Education - Computers & Education 2018;124(0):27–36
(IF: 4.538, Journal Ranking: 4, Number of Journals of this Field: 238, Ranking: 1.68%)

4

唐氏症兒童視知覺訓練方案成效之fMRI研究
萬羿廷,江青穗,陳佳如,汪宜霈* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - RIDD 2018 66卷(0期):1-15頁
(IF: 1.82, 領域排名: 8, 領域期刊數: 40, 領域排名: 20.00%)

The effectiveness of the computerized visual perceptual training program on individuals with Down syndrome: An fMRI study
Yi-Ting Wan, Ching-Sui Chiang, Sharon Chia-Ju Chen, Yee-Pay Wuang* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - RIDD 2018;66(0):1-15
(IF: 1.82, Journal Ranking: 8, Number of Journals of this Field: 40, Ranking: 20.00%)

5

發展遲緩兒童之互動式視知覺遊戲數位學習系統持續使用的研究
林憲政, 邱毓賢, 陳彥銘, 汪宜霈, 陳秋評, 王志中, 黃倩玲, 巫唐孟, 何文獻* - - 1 - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS - INT J MED INFORM 2017 107卷(0期):76–87頁
(IF: 3.21, 領域排名: 29, 領域期刊數: 146, 領域排名: 19.86%)

Continued use of an interactive computer game-based visual perception learning system in children with developmental delay
Lin, H. C., Y. H. Chiu, Y. J. Chen, Y. P. Wuang, C. P. Chen, C. C. Wang, C. L. Huang, T. M. Wu and W. H. Ho* - - 1 - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS - INT J MED INFORM 2017;107(0):76–87
(IF: 3.21, Journal Ranking: 29, Number of Journals of this Field: 146, Ranking: 19.86%)

6

唐氏症視覺功能表現
萬羿廷,江青穗,陳佳如,王志中,汪宜霈* - - 2 - RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES - RES DEV DISABIL 2015 37卷(-期):112-118頁
(IF: 1.887, 領域排名: 6, 領域期刊數: 39, 領域排名: 15.38%)

Profiles of visual percepual functions in Down syndrome
Wan, YT, Chiang, CS, Chen, CJ,Wang, CC, & Wuang, YP* - - 2 - RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES - RES DEV DISABIL 2015;37(-):112-118
(IF: 1.887, Journal Ranking: 6, Number of Journals of this Field: 39, Ranking: 15.38%)

7

The effectiveness of racket-sport intervention on visual perception and executive functions in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.
陳明德,蔡獻裕, 王志中, 汪宜霈* - - 1 - Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment - NEUROPSYCH DIS TREAT 2015 11卷(-期):2287-2297頁
(IF: 1.741, 領域排名: 88, 領域期刊數: 140, 領域排名: 62.86%)

The effectiveness of racket-sport intervention on visual perception and executive functions in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.
Chen ,M.D.,Tsai,H.Y., Wang C. C., & Wuang , Y. P . - - 1 - Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment - NEUROPSYCH DIS TREAT 2015;11(-):2287-2297
(IF: 1.741, Journal Ranking: 88, Number of Journals of this Field: 140, Ranking: 62.86%)

8

智能障礙居家職能治療介入療效研究
汪宜霈,何光升,蘇純瑩* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - RES DEV DISABIL 2013 34卷(1期):528-537頁
(IF: 2.483, 領域排名: 4, 領域期刊數: 67, 領域排名: 5.97%)

Occupational therapy home program for children with intellectual disabilities: A randomized, controlled trial
Wuang YP, Ho GS, Su CY* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - RES DEV DISABIL 2013;34(1):528-537
(IF: 2.483, Journal Ranking: 4, Number of Journals of this Field: 67, Ranking: 5.97%)

9

徒手肌力測定器運用於智能障礙者下肢力量之再測信度研究
汪宜霈*,張志仲,王閩弘,林秀靜 - - 1 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - RES DEV DISABIL 2013 34卷(8期):2281-2290頁
(IF: 2.483, 領域排名: 4, 領域期刊數: 67, 領域排名: 5.97%)

Test–retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer for lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities
Wuang YP*, Chang JJ, Wang MH, Lin HC - - 1 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - RES DEV DISABIL 2013;34(8):2281-2290
(IF: 2.483, Journal Ranking: 4, Number of Journals of this Field: 67, Ranking: 5.97%)

10

Psychometric comparisons of three measures for assessing motor functions in preschoolers with intellectual disabilities
汪宜霈,蘇純瑩,黃茂雄* - - 2 - JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH - J INTELL DISABIL RES 2012 56卷(6期):567-578頁
(IF: 1.877, 領域排名: 6, 領域期刊數: 37, 領域排名: 16.22%)

Psychometric comparisons of three measures for assessing motor functions in preschoolers with intellectual disabilities
Wuang YP, Su CY, Huang MH* - - 2 - JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH - J INTELL DISABIL RES 2012;56(6):567-578
(IF: 1.877, Journal Ranking: 6, Number of Journals of this Field: 37, Ranking: 16.22%)

11

青少年唐氏症患者肌力與敏捷度研究
林秀靜,汪宜霈* - - 2 - RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES - RES DEV DISABIL 2012 33卷(6期):2236-2244頁
(IF: 3.405, 領域排名: 2, 領域期刊數: 67, 領域排名: 2.99%)

Strength and agility training in adolescents with Down syndrome: A randomized controlled trial
Lin HC, Wuang YP* - - 2 - RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES - RES DEV DISABIL 2012;33(6):2236-2244
(IF: 3.405, Journal Ranking: 2, Number of Journals of this Field: 67, Ranking: 2.99%)

12

Patterns of Participation and enjoyment in adolescents with Down syndrome
汪宜霈, 蘇純瑩 - - 2 - RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES - RES DEV DISABIL 2012 33卷(3期):841-848頁
(IF: 3.405, 領域排名: 2, 領域期刊數: 67, 領域排名: 2.99%)

Patterns of Participation and enjoyment in adolescents with Down syndrome
Wuang Yee-Pay, Su Chwen-Yng - - 2 - RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES - RES DEV DISABIL 2012;33(3):841-848
(IF: 3.405, Journal Ranking: 2, Number of Journals of this Field: 67, Ranking: 2.99%)

13

Effectiveness of virtual reality using Wii gaming technology in children with Down syndrome
Yee-Pay Wuang, Ching-Sui Chiang, Chwen-Yng Su, Chih-Chung Wang - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2011 32卷(1期):312-21頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Effectiveness of virtual reality using Wii gaming technology in children with Down syndrome
Yee-Pay Wuang, Ching-Sui Chiang, Chwen-Yng Su, Chih-Chung Wang - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2011;32(1):312-21
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

14

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in children with developmental coordination disorder
汪宜霈, 蘇純瑩, Jui-Hsing Su - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2011 32卷(5期):1669-76頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in children with developmental coordination disorder
Yee-Pay Wuang, Chwen-Yng Su, Jui-Hsing Su - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2011;32(5):1669-76
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

15

Correlations of sensory processing and visual organization ability with participation in school-aged children with Down syndrome
汪宜霈, 蘇純瑩 - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2011 32卷(6期):2398-407頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Correlations of sensory processing and visual organization ability with participation in school-aged children with Down syndrome
Wuang Yee-Pay, Su Jui-Hsing, Su Chwen-Yng* - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2011;32(6):2398-407
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

16

Hooper視覺整合測驗之羅序分析
汪宜霈, 王儷珍, 蘇純瑩* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabiltieis - 2010 31卷(6期):1276-1282頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

A Rasch-based validation of the Hooper Visual Organization Test in Chinese-speaking children
Yee-Pay Wuang, Li-Chen Wang, Chwen-Yng Su* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabiltieis - 2010;31(6):1276-1282
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

17

模擬式馬術治療應用於自閉症之療效
汪宜霈, 王志中, 黃茂雄, 蘇純瑩* - - 1 - Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly - ADAPT PHYS ACT Q 2010 27卷(2期):113-126頁
(IF: 1.189, 領域排名: 24, 領域期刊數: 43, 領域排名: 55.81%)

The Effectiveness of Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program in Children With Autism
Yee-Pay Wuang, Chih-Chung Wang, Mao-Hsiung Huang, Chwen-Yng Su* - - 1 - Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly - ADAPT PHYS ACT Q 2010;27(2):113-126
(IF: 1.189, Journal Ranking: 24, Number of Journals of this Field: 43, Ranking: 55.81%)

18

電腦化視知覺動作整合評估工具之預試
周映君, 汪宜霈, 張志仲* - - 9 - 台灣職能治療研究與實務雜誌 - 2010 6卷(2期):13-23頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

A Pilot Study of Computerized Assessment of Visual-Perceptual-Motor Integration
- - 9 - 台灣職能治療研究與實務雜誌 - 2010;6(2):13-23
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

19

BOT-2動作功能測驗於智能障礙樣本的題目分析
汪宜霈, 林月仙, 蘇純瑩* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2009 30卷(6期):1132-1144頁
(IF: 4.41, 領域排名: 1, 領域期刊數: 52, 領域排名: 1.92%)

Rasch analysis of the Bruininks-oseretsky test of motor proficiency-second edition in intellectual disabilities
Wuang, Y.P., Lin, Y.H., & Su, C.Y.* - - 2 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2009;30(6):1132-1144
(IF: 4.41, Journal Ranking: 1, Number of Journals of this Field: 52, Ranking: 1.92%)

20

感覺統合治療、神經發展治療與知覺動作治療於輕度智能障礙兒童感覺動作功能療效之研究
汪宜霈, 王志中, 黃茂雄, 蘇純瑩* - - 2 - American Journal of Occupational Therapy - 2009 63卷(4期):439-450頁
(IF: 1.419, 領域排名: 14, 領域期刊數: 52, 領域排名: 26.92%)

Prospective study of the effect of sensory integration, neurodevelopmental treatment, and perceptual-motor therapy on the sensorimotor performance in children with mild mental retardation
Wuang, Y.P., Wang, C.C., Huang, M.H., & Su, C.Y.* - - 2 - American Journal of Occupational Therapy - 2009;63(4):439-450
(IF: 1.419, Journal Ranking: 14, Number of Journals of this Field: 52, Ranking: 26.92%)

21

Reliability and responsiveness of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition in children with intellectual disability
汪宜霈, 蘇純瑩* - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2009 30卷(5期):847-55頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Reliability and responsiveness of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition in children with intellectual disability
Wuang Yee-Pay, Su Chwen-Yng* - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2009;30(5):847-55
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

22

Rasch analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in children with intellectual disabilities
Wuang Yee-Pay, Su Chwen-Yng* - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2009 30卷(5期):1044-53頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Rasch analysis of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration in children with intellectual disabilities
Wuang Yee-Pay, Su Chwen-Yng* - - 0 - Research in Developmental Disabilities - 2009;30(5):1044-53
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

23

輕度智能障礙兒童之動作功能與其預測因子
汪宜霈, 王志中, 黃茂雄, 蘇純瑩* - - 2 - Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - 2008 52卷(12期):1048-1060頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Profiles and cognitive predictors of motor functions among early school-age children with mild intellectual disabilities
Wuang, Y. P., Wang, C. C., Huang, M. H., & Su, C. Y. * - - 2 - Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - 2008;52(12):1048-1060
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

24

智能障礙者的日常生活功能之神經心理預測因子
蘇純瑩,陳靜江,汪宜霈,林月仙,吳裕益 - - 2 - Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - 2008 52卷(1期):18-28頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Neuropsychological predictors of everyday functioning in adults with intellectual disabilities
Su CY*, Chen CC, Wuang YP, Lin YH, Wu YY. - - 2 - Journal of Intellectual Disability Research - 2008;52(1):18-28
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

25

被殼出血的中風病人在威斯康辛卡片分類測驗之表現
蘇純瑩, 汪宜霈, 張瑞昆, 郭乃文, 關皚麗* - - 0 - Kaohsiung J Med Sci. - 2006 22卷(2期):75-84頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance After Putaminal Hemorrhagic Stroke
Su CY, Wuang YP, Chang JK, Guo NW, Kwan AL* - - 0 - Kaohsiung J Med Sci. - 2006;22(2):75-84
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

26

腦性麻痺兒童適應體育教學模式之發展
汪宜霈, 鈕文英 - - 0 - 特殊教育與復健學報 (Bulletin of Special Education and Rehabilitation) - 2005 13卷(0期):149-178頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

Development of Adapted Physical Education Program for School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy
Wuang YP, Niew WI - - 0 - 特殊教育與復健學報 (Bulletin of Special Education and Rehabilitation) - 2005;13(0):149-178
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

27

腦性麻痺兒童適應體育教學之成效研究
汪宜霈, 鈕文英 - - 0 - 特殊教育與復健學報 (Bulletin of Special Education and Rehabilitation) - 2005 14卷(0期):217-240頁
(IF: 0, 領域排名: 0, 領域期刊數: 0, 領域排名: -%)

The Effect of Adapted Physical Education Program on the Outcome of School-aged Children with Cerebral Palsy
Wuang YP, Niew WI - - 0 - 特殊教育與復健學報 (Bulletin of Special Education and Rehabilitation) - 2005;14(0):217-240
(IF: 0, Journal Ranking: 0, Number of Journals of this Field: 0, Ranking: -%)

28

高雄市身心障礙兒童專業團隊中之職能治療
汪宜霈,王志中 - - 0 - 職能治療學會雜誌 - 2002 20卷(0期):75-93頁
(IF: , 領域排名: , 領域期刊數: , 領域排名: %)

Occupational Therapy in Collaborative Teams for children with Special Needs in Kaohsiung City
Yee-pay Wuang, Chih-chung Wang - - 0 - 職能治療學會雜誌 - 2002;20(0):75-93
(IF: , Journal Ranking: , Number of Journals of this Field: , Ranking: %)

29

高雄市身心障礙兒童專業團隊中之職能治療
汪宜霈, 王志中 - - 1 - 職能治療學會雜誌 - 2002 20卷(0期):75頁
(IF: , 領域排名: , 領域期刊數: , 領域排名: %)

Occupational Therapy in Collaborative Teams for Children with Special Needs in Kaohsiung City
Yee-pay Wuang, Chih-chung Wang - - 1 - 職能治療學會雜誌 - 2002;20(0):75
(IF: , Journal Ranking: , Number of Journals of this Field: , Ranking: %)

 Project

NO
YEAR — Source — No — Type
Project Name
Duration
1
109 — N 科技部(原國科會) — MOST109-2511-H-037-001 — 1 個人型
國中小智能障礙學生動作與感覺統合功能電腦化評估系統之建置與驗證( )
2020/08/01 ~ 2021/07/31
2
103 — I 國衛院 — NHRI-EX104-10108PI  —  
發展障礙兒童動作與日常生活功能電腦化適性測驗系統之研發 ( )
2015/01/01 ~ 2015/12/31
3
102 — I 國衛院 — NHRI-EX103-10108PI —  
發展障礙兒童動作與日常生活功能電腦化適性測驗系統之研發( )
2014/01/01 ~ 2014/12/31
4
101 — I 國衛院 — NHRI-EX102-10108PI —  
發展障礙兒童動作與日常生活功能電腦化適性測驗系統之研發( )
2013/01/01 ~ 2013/12/31
5
101 — N 科技部(原國科會) — NSC99-2314-B-037-033-MY3 — 1 個人型
唐氏症兒童視知覺功能之探討-磁振造影腦功能研究(3/3)( )
2012/08/01 ~ 2014/01/31
6
100 — I 國衛院 — NHRI-EX101-10108PI —  
發展障礙兒童動作與日常生活功能電腦化適性測驗系統之研發( )
2012/01/01 ~ 2012/12/31
7
100 — N 科技部(原國科會) — NSC99-2314-B-037-033-MY3 — 1 個人型
唐氏症兒童視知覺功能之探討-磁振造影腦功能研究(2/3)( )
2011/08/01 ~ 2014/01/31
8
099 — N 科技部(原國科會) — NSC99-2314-B-037-033-MY3 — 1 個人型
唐氏症兒童視知覺功能之探討-磁振造影腦功能研究(1/3)( )
2010/08/01 ~ 2014/01/31
9
091 — M 高醫(種子計畫) — KMU92-C-09 —  
增進發展遲緩兒童認識及照護技巧之衛生教育計劃( )
2002/11/15 ~ 2003/07/31

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